Modern architecture is a style that emphasizes function and simplified form. She clearly rejects ornaments. This project aesthetic differs from more sophisticated and ornate homes. Modern architecture is generally characterized by clean lines. The central idea of modern architecture is that form should follow function and embrace minimalism. The purpose of the building should be the starting point of design, not beauty. It is also called functionalism.
Materials should be used where they are most suitable, without obscuring their character and appearance. For example, exposed concrete should be left unpainted and wood unpolished so that its natural grain is visible.
The first point of the principles of modern architecture is the pilotis, columns, or pillars that raise a structure from the ground. Supports and foundations are calculated exactly according to the loads they have to bear. These supports are spaced at precise and equal intervals, regardless of the interior design of the building. They arise directly from the ground for three to six meters and raise the ground floor. The fact that the structure is lifted offers many functional advantages. By raising a building above the ground, the pilings allow circulation under the house. The rooms are thus away from the humidity of the ground, they have light and air. The pilotis also allow you to place a driveway, a parking space, or a garden under the house. The same area is also gained on the flat roof.
The flat roof primarily requires systematic use for domestic purposes: roof terrace, roof garden which provides additional living space. On the other hand, reinforced concrete requires protection against temperature changes. Overactivity of reinforced concrete is prevented by maintaining constant moisture on the concrete of the roof. The roof terrace meets these two requirements (a layer of sand dampened by the rain, covered with concrete slabs with lawns in the interstices; the soil of the flower beds in direct contact with the layer of sand). In this way, the rainwater will drain extremely slowly. Drain pipes inside the building. Thus, latent moisture will remain continuously on the skin of the roof. The rooftop gardens will feature very lush vegetation. Shrubs and even small trees three or four meters high can be planted. In this way, the roof garden will become the most privileged place in the building. In general, rooftop gardens mean for a city the recovery of all the built-up areas.
Free design of the ground plan and the façade
The free plane is the next point. The support system carries the intermediate ceilings and rises to the roof. The framing does not depend on the plans of the house, which means that the floor space can be arranged freely without having to worry about load-bearing walls in the bedrooms. By removing the limitations of the internal supporting walls, the operation of the interior remains free and unimpeded in use. The natural fluidity of space is an essential characteristic of modern architecture. This functionality makes it possible to consider future modifications to the building, extensions, or movable partitions.
The freedom of the façade is another point. It is the possibility of freely designing the façade because the walls are not load-bearing, which is the result of the free plan. The separation of the exterior of the building from its structural function frees the façade thanks to the construction of a concrete frame. In doing so, it allows maximum light, better ventilation and also gives a view of the surrounding courtyard. Non-structural walls can also allow the installation of windows. A window can just as easily be ten meters long for a residential house.
The last point is the horizontal window. This allows the façade to be cut along its entire length. Next to the middle ceilings, rectangular openings are formed in the façade, through which light and air enter in abundance. The window extends from support to support and thus becomes a horizontal window. The vertical windows on the pilotis, therefore, disappear, as do the unpleasant mullions. This way, rooms are evenly lit from wall to wall. Experiments have shown that a room lit in this way has eight times more light than the same room lit by vertical windows of the same area. The whole history of modern architecture revolves exclusively around wall openings. Through the use of the horizontal window, reinforced concrete suddenly offers the possibility of maximum lighting.